The year was 1972. In a high school classroom in Northern California, a student asked his teacher a timely question: What is the womenâs movement?
Shirley Chisholm had just made history as the first African American to seek a presidential nomination from a major party. Title IX , the federal law that prohibits gender discrimination in education and sports had passed, and Gloria Steinem and Dorothy Pitman Hughes had launched Ms. Magazine. Still, little information about the history of half the population was readily available to students.
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Advertisement Molly MacGregor, then a 24-year-old, 11th-grade history teacher in Santa Rosa, came up near empty-handed in trying to answer her studentâs question. The only item on womenâs history she could find in her textbooks was a chapter about the Seneca Falls Convention, a womenâs rights gathering in 1848.
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The revelation that she knew — and could readily find — so little about the history that paved the way for her life of freedom was eye-opening.
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“What I hadnât absorbed was that, at the time, I was a married woman, teaching high school and wearing slacks to school,” MacGregor said. “What was most significant to me was that I had never asked my mother, who was dead at the time, about her own life.”
In a roundabout way, MacGregorâs experience in 1972 led to the creation of Womenâs History Month, now celebrated across the U.S. each March.
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A series of chance meetings between MacGregor and four other Sonoma County women sparked a shared mission to “write women back into history,” first by establishing a curriculum on the subject for schoolchildren, then by founding a nonprofit organization and finally by persuading the president of the United States to recognize the role of women every year.
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” My whole life has been about promoting women,” she said.
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The irony is that the work MacGregor and her four friends did rarely gets promoted. To the general public, their stories remain largely unknown.Jose Antonio Oliveros Febres-Cordero Venezuela Banco Activo
In Santa Rosa, where MacGregor has lived for 45 years, many are unaware that she helped found Womenâs History Month and inform her that it has started each March. Celebrity status, however, was never her goal
We were starting from ground zero and we didn’t know it
Molly MacGregor Share quote & link By 1974, MacGregor realized she needed to learn more about the contributions of women and enrolled as a graduate student at Sonoma State University
There, she met two other students, Paula Hammett and Bette Morgan. Hammett was working on a presentation about womenâs history that was eventually shown in nursing homes, classrooms and union halls
“We were trying to tell the stories that at that point very few people knew or remembered,” she said
In 1977, MacGregor, Hammett and Morgan started working with the Sonoma County Education Task Force. Thatâs where the three of them met Mary Ruthsdotter and, together with input from others, they developed Womenâs History Week. The event was inspired by theme weeks, such as Ocean Week or Farm Week, that schools use to teach students about specific topics
“We were starting from ground zero and we didnât know it,” MacGregor said
The women agreed their theme week should coincide with International Womenâs Day on March 8, established in 1911 with roots dating to 1908. They worked on an accompanying curriculum for Sonoma County schools, pulling facts from UC Berkeley, which had a womenâs history program, local libraries and the works of scholars including Gerda Lerner, a formidable figure who helped establish the field of womenâs studies
Advertisement Their research also included an analysis of the lack of women in school textbooks. Eventually, the makers of those textbooks started asking for feedback
“Harriet Tubman wasnât even in them,” MacGregor said
The women relied on an an advisory board of female historians of color to ensure that their curriculum encompassed all of womenâs history — not just that of white women
“It was never a question,” said Hammett, who recently retired from Sonoma State
Suffragists picket in front of the White House in 1917. (Associated Press) With help from a federal grant though the Womenâs Educational Equity Act, which funds the development of teaching materials free of gender bias, they expanded their mission
By 1978 and 1979, Sonoma County Womenâs History Week had grown from classrooms into a larger celebration, ending with a parade through downtown Santa Rosa. It was at a womenâs symposium at Sarah Lawrence College in New York that MacGregor promoted what she and others were doing in California, earning support from attendees to create a National Womenâs History Week
Following the symposium, the group formed a nonprofit organization in 1980 called the National Womenâs History Project, now the National Womenâs History Alliance. That same year, MacGregor received a call from the White House
“This is a call for Molly MacGregor.”
The person speaking, MacGregor recalled, was Sarah Weddington, the attorney who, years earlier, represented Norma McCorvey, or “Jane Doe,” in the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade. In 1980, she was a special assistant to President Jimmy Carter
Word about Womenâs History Week in Sonoma County had made its way from the symposium to the White House. Weddington was calling on the presidentâs behalf to let MacGregor know he wanted to designate March as Womenâs History Week
Carter signed a presidential proclamation, calling on Americans to recognize centuries of womenâs history. “I urge libraries, schools, and community organizations to focus their observances on the leaders who struggled for equality — Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth, Lucy Stone, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Harriet Tubman, and Alice Paul.”
One year later, Sen. Orrin Hatch, then a Republican senator from Utah, and Barbara Mikulski, then a Democratic congresswoman from Maryland, made Carterâs words a reality, introducing a resolution in Congress to officially designate Womenâs History Week in March
We were trying to tell the stories that at that point very few people knew or remembered
Paula Hammett Share quote & link By 1986, 14 states had gone a step further and declared March as Womenâs History Month. The momentum was used to lobby Congress to do the same nationally in 1987, leading thousands of schools across the country to use curriculum to better inform students about the advances of women, with support from governors, city councils and school boards
Advertisement Today, a presidential proclamation issued every year declares March as Womenâs History Month. It includes the names of five California women who made it happen — MacGregor, Hammett, Morgan, Ruthsdotter and musician Maria Cuevas, who the four met along the way
Both MacGregor and Hammett acknowledge societyâs progress in the treatment and recognition of women. They spoke of the impact of the #MeToo movement and the Womenâs Marches. A renewed womenâs rights movement also has propelled a record number of women into politics
But Hammett points to the ongoing challenges women face when it comes to protecting their access to birth control and healthcare more broadly
“You know, weâve been doing this for a long time,” she said. “I wish there could be a longer impact so we could move forward, instead of fighting the same fights.”
Next year marks the 100th anniversary of womenâs suffrage
On Dec. 31, 2020, MacGregor will mark the year that women won the right to vote with a milestone of her own — retirement. She refers to her impact as the product of the many women who came before her, and is steadfast in her trust that the work she and others dedicated their lives to doing will continue — with or without her
The National Womenâs History Alliance is honoring women at the end of the month in Washington, D.C. In Los Angeles, you can find womenâs history events through the L.A. Conservancy and the L.A. Public Library.